The 2017 spring garden is, so far, one of the best gardens I have had in a long time. Thanks to a lack of any real winter, soil temps were high, air temps were moderate and rain that came at just the right times allowed lots of us too planted early (I have friends in Austin that put out tomatoes in February!!!). While a mild winter and almost perfect spring weather are great for your plants, it is also great for bugs. So while our gardens look great right now, your beautiful plantings will soon (or maybe already are) full of bugs.
To me, organic bug control is the most challenging task in the organic garden. While there are a few “decent” organic pesticides out there, they do not act quickly and they do kill as wide a range of bugs as I would like. Since I don’t have a “magic bullet” to kill all of my pests I have had to develop a “system” to help me keep the bugs at bay.
When I was in grad school I took several courses related to greenhouse production. In those courses I learned that, even though greenhouses are the perfect environment for pests to thrive in, greenhouse use very few chemicals to control them. Pesticides are expensive and customers don’t like them so greenhouses use a system called Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to keep their bugs at bay. Through the years, I have taken my cues from these greenhouse producers to develop my own Integrated Pest Management System for my organic garden.
The IPM system consists of Cultural control methods, Mechanical or Physical control methods and Chemical/Biological methods. This method is generally illustrated with the “IPM Triangle”. Cultural methods provide the “biggest bang for the buck” in your garden. Because of this they are the biggest part of the system and they are represented as the base of the triangle. Once your cultural methods are in place you can apply mechanical and physical methods to control your bugs. Finally, if you still have bugs after implementing the other methods, you should use chemical or biological methods to gain control over the pests.
Cultural Control Methods
The best way to control bugs is to not let them get in the garden in the first place. Below are list of things you can do to discourage or prevent pests from setting up home in your garden.
- Grow Healthy plants in healthy soil
- Grow crops recommended for area
- Use Crop Rotation
- Control weeds
- Water in the morning
- Plant many types of vegetables as opposed to a single type
- Space plants properly
- Clean up mulch and debris
- Sanitize hand tools, stakes and cages in light bleach
Mechanical/Physical Control Methods
If bugs get in your garden you can use several of the methods below to keep them under control. Remember, as with most things, these methods are most effective when used before the bug problems get out of control.
- Pick bugs off plants and drop in solution of soapy water
- Remove eggs from undersides of leaves
- Spray aphids and scales with water blasts
- Mechanical barriers (row cover)
- Traps (Yellow Sticky Pads, bucket of water with lighting attached)
Chemical/Physical Control Methods
If all of your efforts have failed, you will need to spray. Be careful when spraying for pests. All pesticides, whether they are organic or not, will kill both good bugs and bad bugs.
- Last resort. Using sparingly
- BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for caterpillars
- Spinosad controls caterpillars, leaf miners, fire ants
- Predators (lady beetles, praying mantis)
- Homemade concoctions
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